Only road-worthy vehicles, which have been maintained well, should be permitted on the roads. Awareness campaigns on safe driving should be carried out everywhere. Since young drivers are high on the accident list, their age limit should be increased. If the drivers are involved in any accidents, their licence should be suspended. I hope the short talk that I have delivered have given you some ideas of how to use the road safely. Thank you for listening. Road Safety Speech Essay 10 October We will write a custom essay sample on. Road Safety Speech Essay. A limited time offer!
A Sample Wanted. Road markings are defined as lines, patterns, words or other devices set into, applied or attached to the carriageway or kerbs or to objects within or adjacent to the carriageway, for controlling, warning, guiding and informing the road users.
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Road markings are used to control and guide traffic along its designated path, and aid pedestrians and cyclists in using their own paths or move into safe locations. This promotes road safety and ensures smooth flow of traffic, especially under mixed traffic conditions. One inherent advantage of road markings is that they convey the necessary information to the driver without distracting their attention from the carriageway. Some limitations are obliteration by skidding of vehicle tyres and snow, poor visibility under wet conditions and renewals as and when necessary.
The advantages of road markings far outweigh these limitations. The material commonly used for road markings is paint; ordinary paints for this purpose are covered by the relevant Indian Standard Specification. These paints do not provide a bright surface and they have a relatively short life.
Hence, thermoplastic paints are applied for better visibility. Night visibility can be enhanced by using minute glass beads set in the markings to produce a retro-reflective surface. Road studs and metal and plastic inserts are also used. Road markings may be classified broadly into the following two types:.
Traffic Safety Essay Examples | Kibin
As the name indicates, these are markings applied or painted on the carriageway itself. These may be primarily longitudinal, but may be transverse as in the case of STOP lines and cyclist crossings. Miscellaneous symbols such as route direction arrows, word messages, parking space limits and bus stops may also be used, each for a specific purpose.
Some general principles of longitudinal carriageway markings are universally accepted:. Solid lines are regulatory or restrictive, and it is an offence to cross such lines, except when absolutely necessary to avoid a stationary obstruction or to enter or exit from a service road. Broken lines, although generally restrictive in character, may be crossed consistent with safety.
When solid and broken lines are used in combination, a vehicle should not cross the solid line adjacent to and to the left of a broken line on the right of the lane in which it is moving. This is applicable to countries in which the traffic keeps to the left. In the case of countries in which the traffic keeps to the right, left should be substituted by right, and vice-versa. Double solid lines indicate maximum restriction and should not be crossed. The colour of road markings in Indian practice is given below:.
Traffic Signals :.
Traffic signals are utilised for safe movement of traffic at road intersections and to avoid possible conflicts between vehicles approaching the intersection from different directions. It is surprising to note that traffic signals were used in London as early as A traffic signal device is an assembly containing one or more signal faces; each comprises optical units which display colour-coded indications.
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In India, as in most countries around the world, three colours are used — red, amber and green. They may be fixed horizontally or vertically to a post; left to right in this sequence for the former arrangement and top to bottom for the latter. A flashing red signal indicates that the vehicle stop and proceed with caution depending on the availability of a safe gap in the crossing stream. Flashing amber signal indicates that the vehicle may proceed with caution. A simple signal face with three lenses arranged in a vertical line, attached to a post of suitable height is shown in Fig.
The lenses are normally of two sizes — mm and mm diameter. In addition to the simplest signal face Fig. In addition to signal posts adjacent to the carriageway, overhead signal posts at a height of 6. Detailed specifications for the illumination of signals are available in IS: Regarding location of the traffic signals, it is desirable to provide at least two installations:.
A typical layout of signal installations for a two-lane intersection is shown in Fig.
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Need for Traffic Signals :. Interruption of continuous traffic flow on the Major Street and undue delay of traffic on the minor street. Orderly traffic flow and increase in traffic capacity of the intersection. Reduction of accidents — right-angled collisions and those involving pedestrians. Interruption of heavy traffic to assign right of way for pedestrians and slow-moving vehicles.
Signal indications are clear even under unfavourable weather conditions and at night. Unwarranted signals encourage the drivers to disobey the signal indications. In case there is a break-down of the system due to power failure or for any other reason, it will lead to chaotic traffic conditions and unnecessary delay, especially during peak hours. Classification of Traffic Signals Based on Operation :. These signals are set to repeat a cycle of red, amber and green lights regularly, with the timing of each of these phases being predetermined based on the expected traffic at the intersecting roads obtained from the traffic studies.
The sum of the durations of the three phases is the cycle length in time units.
Traffic Safety Essay
These are electrically operated and the simplest type of automatic signals. Fixed-time signals are efficient when traffic patterns are relatively stable for significantly long periods moving to the consistency of repetition of the cycles, and linking with adjacent signals and signal networks is relatively easy. However, this type of signaling system is disadvantageous during off-peak hours since excessive delays occur as the timings of each phase is fixed However, different sequences of the cycles with predetermined phase times can be set by automatic or manual switching.
In this type, detector devices are placed on the carriageway a little ahead of the stop line. As the vehicle approaches, the detector actuates the signal mechanism to flash or extend the green period based on the traffic demands. In a fully traffic-actuated system, detectors are placed on all the legs of the intersection, and the right of way is assigned by a computer programmed in a certain manner to respond to the traffic needs.
In a semi-traffic-actuated system, detectors are placed on the minor roads at the intersection, while the right of way is normally given to the traffic on the major roads. Since these signal systems are expensive, in developing countries traffic police are assigned the duty of varying the phase- and cycle-time of the signals according to traffic demands.
Traffic Safety Essay Examples
If the individual signal systems along a city thoroughfare with intersections at frequent intervals are co-ordinated such that a vehicle moving along the thoroughfare at normal speed need not have to stop at a very intersection for getting the green indication, it gets a thorough land and there will be minimum delay. This results in increased capacity along the co-ordinated route.
This co-ordination may be achieved by the following systems:. In this system, all the signals along a given road show the same indication at the same time; the phase times and the cycle lengths are all same. This results in simultaneous stoppage of all the traffic along the road and increases the tendency of the drivers to speed up between intersections.
It also causes inconvenience to traffic from side roads trying to enter or cross the traffic on the main road. Thus there will be a significant reduction in road capacity. In this system, consecutive signal installations show contrary indications at a given time. This limits speeding but will result in inefficient handling of traffic at most intersections. Although better than the simultaneous system, it is not suitable when the block lengths are unequal. Under this system, the different signals along a road display green indications according to a time schedule to permit a reasonably continuous movement of vehicles, although at different speeds in different blocks.
The offsets at the installations are determined so as to secure the best possible continuous movement in both the directions. Offset, in this context, means the difference between the starts of green phase at the successive upstream and downstream signals. It is important in planning a system of co-ordination. Each signal installation may have a different cycle division, which remains fixed throughout the day. Under this system, it is possible to vary the cycle length, cycle division, time schedule and the offset at each of the signal installations automatically with the aid of a master controller.
This results in the best possible movement of the traffic stream at approximately the design speed. This is expensive but is justified in cities where traffic is very heavy.