Project leaders and local partners presented policy recommendations to the governors of the provinces around the lake and Manila Bay in March The recommendations included greater investment in improved land management practices, a phosphate detergent ban, and caps on the total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus that can be released from discharge points.
Satellite image from May showing Manila Bay on left and the much shallower and hence lighter coloured Laguna de Bay on the right with black plumes of pollution at the mouth of the Taguig and Passig rivers, and elsewhere. Many of the millions of people living on the lake shores are informal settlers whose homes lack proper sanitation facilities. At least half a million of them are estimated to be discharging raw sewage into the lake. The government is considering building medium-rise houses for them around the lake, using environmentally friendly technologies such as compost toilets, biochar charcoal used as a soil enhancer , and wetlands to control sewage.
To halt rapid sedimentation, authorities have drawn up plans to build small dams on tributaries to filter out debris and reduce the amount of soil entering the lake.
Reforestation along parts of the shore has also been considered. The Laguna Lake Development Authority is the principal body working towards the sound ecological governance and sustainable development of the lake. The Authority drew up a year master plan in Education is an important part of its work. The partnership has conducted 16 ecological camps benefiting students from high schools and 13 lakeside municipalities, where children learn to value Laguna de Bay. Government agencies have decided that for fishing to be more sustainable, some of the vast fish pens in the lake should be dismantled.
In July, the authority reportedly halved the maximum pen size to 25 hectares in a drive to cut their total area by one-third from the current 13,, hectares.
Over the past few months hundreds of large fish pens have been removed amid an ongoing debate about the local fishing industry, a key source of income for many people. In January, the government declared a one-year moratorium on the issuance of permits for fish pens in the lake. Pollution is the theme of the United Nations Environment Assembly , which is meeting in Nairobi from 4 to 6 December. Sign the pledge and help us BeatPollution around the world. For further information, please contact Christopher Cox Christopher.
Media enquiries: unepnewsdesk[at]unep. Are you sure you want to print? Save the planet. Opt not to print. United Nations Environment Programme. Promoting livelihoods through nature-based disaster risk reduction in India. Breadcrumb Home News and Stories Story. Curbing big fish pens Government agencies have decided that for fishing to be more sustainable, some of the vast fish pens in the lake should be dismantled.
Table of Contents
Topics Ecosystems Environmental rights and governance Water. Related Sustainable Development Goals. Mixed methods are explained by Creswell et al. Employing rigorous quantitative research assessing magnitude and frequency of constructs and rigorous qualitative research exploring the meaning and understanding of constructs, c. Utilizing multiple methods e.
The Philippines : Country Environmental Analysis
Intentionally integrating or combining these methods to draw on the strengths of each and e. Framing the investigation within philosophical and theoretical positions. This study used mainly the case study technique. As reported by Creswell , Pp. Stake states that case study research is not a methodology, but a choice of what is to be studied Creswell, Case studies are a valid, accepted and reliable research methodology, like other research techniques Flyvbjerg, , p.
The validity, acceptability and reliability depend on the quality of the research design and its rigorous implementation Banyai, Case studies exhibit causal arguments about how common social forces take shape and produce results in a specific setting Ragin, , p. It is a holistic approach to research considering the interrelationships between people, institutions, and events Weiss, , p.
Comparatively, case study provides more detailed information than other methods Neale et al. The other advantage of case studies is that it allows the researcher to present data collected from multiple methods, such as, surveys, interviews, document review and observation in order to introduce the bigger picture or a complete story Neale and Boyce, There are three different types of case studies: 1 intrinsic case study, 2 instrumental case study and 3 collective case study, which is a number of case studies investigating a general phenomenon Silverman, , p.
In this study the third type or the collective case study — has been used. There are two approaches in selecting a case, one is randomly and the other is purposefully. Selection of the cases in this research was done purposely after visiting various sites. Table 1 shows the description and the time scale of visits to select case study sites. Feast of the forest project is continuing for 23 years and Love Affair with Nature is continuing for last 11 years. These projects are continuing even the political administration has changed.
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There are various tree planting projects being conducted in the city by private organizations and individuals. Feast of the forest and Love Affair with Nature are legalized government sponsored major events that at least 10, plus locals participate every year. There are about 9 Community Based Sustainable Tourism projects in the city and these 3 are all associated with Mangrove forest.
Immature to mature range CBST projects being selected to highlight the diversification of the activities. Ugong Rock Adventure is the most successful livelihood activity in the city after world renounced underground river tourism.
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All major tourism attractions were observed as shown in Figure 4. As limitations of the case study method, Neale et al. The sources of information for case studies, according to Palena et al. Using these methods, reasons and justification for methodology are explained in the following part of the chapter, with specific techniques that were used to gather data for this work.
Data gathering techniques are explained in detail in this chapter. Figure 2 shows the data gathering mechanism of this study as a model. Desk research is also known as secondary research. This method involves the collection of summaries and the collation and synthesis of existing research, rather than conducting a new study, where data is collected from already existing experiments and research Crouch, S. References to secondary sources, such as books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, and annual reports of local governments and organizations, were conducted throughout this study to support explanations, especially in the literature review of chapter 3.
Throughout chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7, appropriate desk research findings are used in order to build the discussion. Most of the quantitative data were gathered through this method using available documents.
For this study, online news publications, articles and books written about sustainable environmental development projects were the other sources of secondary information. Today, secondary information is largely available free of charge or at very low cost, although confirming the validity and reliability of the secondary sources remains a challenge.
In many cases the information is incomplete and also the studies are conducted in favor of the author. Some of the studies were out-of-date research reports and did not help the researcher in the current study. During interviews, respondents can express their past and even future actions, experiences, feelings, and thoughts of social encounters Rapley, , p.
Both formal and informal interviews were used during this study, according to the situation. An advantage of informal unstructured interviews is that it does not use a strict question guide and, in most cases, can be conducted in a friendly conversational setting Weiss, , p. Another advantage of informal interviews is that the researcher can listen to the respondent as they tell a story in their own words and open-ended questions can be used Weiss, , p. When conducting case studies, interviews have the strength of targeting and focusing on a specific group to provide insightful, causal inferences and explanations Yin, In this study, close-ended and open-ended questionnaires were used during informal and formal interviews.
Discussions were conducted with local community members during observational and participatory visits. Table 2 shows the interviews conducted and the types of questionnaires used during this study. The interview method is expensive when the sample size is bigger and geographically wide. Also, the findings can be biased and data gathering consumes a large amount of time Banyai, Additionally, they are usually small scale, so it is hard to generalize from the results, as only a small number of the population can be interviewed.
As well, data collection is hard to categorize, as it is likely to have a variety of different answers.
Environmental issues in the Philippines
When a number of people are brought together and questions are raised for them to discuss, this is called the focus group method Weiss, , p. It is called a community interview when the group is larger and more inclusive and involves holding a public meeting with a more detailed program and question guide Krishna, , p. Focus groups allow group dynamics and conversations to be observed Weiss, , p. Focus groups can become problematic because the groups can be dominated by a few articulate or powerful participants Krishna, , p.
For this study, focus group interviews were conducted, as shown in Table 3. In various disciplines within the social sciences snowball sampling is a widely used qualitative technique, used mainly when enriching sample clusters, accessing new participants and social groups Noy, When gathering and accessing information on hidden populations, snowball sampling is a famous tool that is being employed regularly Noy, Even during planned interviews, both individual and focus groups respondents tend to invite others who had similar or more knowledge in the field.
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This was a very common incident in the Philippines and almost every informal discussion had input from many respondents. The negative factor of this method is that sometimes it is difficult to control, and sometimes repetition of findings occurs. Survey questioning is a type of formal interview. For this study, a large survey was not necessary and in most cases an informal survey method was chosen. When using an informal survey, few variables are used, small sample size with non-probability sampling is used, and in return it permits more flexibility to the interviewer Krishna, , pp.
Although smaller in size and limited in focus, informal surveys do generate data that can be interpreted with statistical analysis Krishna, , pp. Data from informal surveys with open-ended questions can be statistically analyzed as long as they are appropriately coded and then categorized Weiss, , p. According to Krishna , p.
Banaue Rice Terraces Restoration: A case study on Tourism Sustainability
In keeping with the foregoing, the author used qualitative, open-ended questionnaires to gather data without harming the original ideas of the respondents. Despite the advantages of using surveys, if careful attention to sampling, measurement, and overall survey design is not given, the survey technique is likely to be a failure Schutt, Observations provide the researcher a greater understanding of the case Robert, Observation is a common technique in research that is easily employed and unfortunately heavily biased Krishna, , p.
For the most part, direct observations were conducted. Direct observation requires the researcher to simply describe the things witnessed. The advantage of this technique is that it allows the observer to study the phenomena in their natural setting and may reveal things that informants are unable or averse to otherwise describe Krishna, , p. Various types of observations were used in this work, including direct observation and participant observation.
Participant observation is an examination conducted by a researcher who takes part in the activities or events that he or she is describing Weiss, , p.