The review goes on to report on the varying contexts of child maltreatment, the concepts of child maltreatment and child protection adopted in these various studies, and their findings with respect to the magnitude of child maltreatment in the Philippines. The review reports on and critiques the extent to which current research addresses varying manifestations of child maltreatment in the Philippines. Finally, the review provides a critique of research investigating and evaluating current child protection policies and practices in the Philippines. The articles included in this review were published in a variety of journals, with Impact Factors ranging from 0.
The fields of childhood studies, criminology, behavioural science, international development and business were also represented among the studies, evidence of the multidisciplinary investigations of this topic.
The ethical arrangements for the studies reported varied. Of the 31 articles, 12 made no reference to ethical review procedures, ethical considerations or institutional review or approval of their research. Nine studies articulated institutional approval for their research. Considering the sensitive nature of the content of child maltreatment research, and the potential vulnerability of participants, the lack of ethical review or considerations in a number of studies is noteworthy. There is methodological variance across the studies included in this literature review.
Quantitative methods were utilised in 17 studies. Eight studies provide qualitative analysis, while the six remaining studies utilised mixed methods, case study or program evaluation approaches. Of the 31 articles reviewed, 12 articles were written solely by authors in the Philippines, and 21 had at least one author from a Filipino institution. However, 11 articles were published as a result of international collaborations, most commonly between the USA and the Philippines, in turn reflecting predominantly North American constructions of childhood and child protection.
Participants in the studies were predominately from metropolitan areas in Manila or Cebu City, representing mostly urban experiences and conceptions of child maltreatment. The literature predominantly focused on child maltreatment in the context of the family home.
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Of the literature reviewed, 18 studies focused on child maltreatment in the home, while seven studies did not distinguish between the home and community context. Notably, apart from Tarroja et al. Here, it should be noted that a considerable number of children in the Philippines reside in institutional care, operated either by the state or church organisations.
There was great variation in the source and the articulation of the definitions of child maltreatment across the articles reviewed. This was in part due to the diversity of the types of child maltreatment explored, and consequently the more detailed conceptualisations of child maltreatment that were required for each research. Some studies defined child maltreatment through the survey tools they used Jeyaseelan et al. Other studies established a definition of the type of child maltreatment under consideration through the perspectives of participants, including children Figer ; Lee Lee consulted Filipino men on the dimensions of domestic violence in their homes while Figer presented children's perspectives on emotional abuse.
None of the articles referred directly to the WHO's definition of child maltreatment, despite this being an explicit component of the search criteria for the current review. The absence of any direct reference to this definition brings into question the extent to which the work of the WHO influences the child protection research agenda in the Philippines.
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Only three studies drew directly on Philippine legislation to define the type of maltreatment under investigation Tarroja et al. Exposure to family violence was viewed through a range of differing definitions. Future investigations need to take these constructions into account. The research retrieved provides evidence of each of the major forms of maltreatment identified by the WHO: neglect, emotional and psychological abuse, physical abuse and sexual abuse.
In a developing country such as the Philippines, the likelihood of child neglect is higher because families are typically more exposed to poverty and associated issues Ramiro et al.
The Effects of Child Abuse on a Child´s Education Essay -- abuse, cons
However, neglect is a contentious concept in the context of developing countries. Lansford et al.
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For example, extreme poverty means that providing children with food, clean water, medical care and education is extremely difficult, while in high income countries, not providing these to children would constitute neglect. According to the studies reviewed here, neglect of children is commonplace across the Philippines. Childhood physical neglect was associated with a twofold increase in likelihood of using alcohol and illicit drugs in the Philippines Ramiro et al. Children's exposure to family violence, a form of emotional and psychological abuse that can affect the psychosocial wellbeing of children, and the ramifications of this for children, is a major theme of the literature in this review.
In Ramiro et al.
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In addition, Mandal and Hindin outline that approximately 44 per cent of females and 47 per cent of males in the Philippines had witnessed their parents physically hurt one another during childhood. Outlining the presence of violence in families more broadly, Ansara and Hindin found that approximately 26 per cent of women reported that either they, or their partner, perpetrated at least one physically aggressive act toward a partner in the last year. In a community in the Philippines, The literature on physical abuse predominantly focuses on harsh discipline and corporal punishment.
The UNCRC Art 19; Article 37 guarantees children's right to protection from abuse and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, which the Committee on the Rights of the Child has interpreted as prohibiting corporal punishment Lansford et al. There is variation in studies' findings on the scale of physical abuse in the Philippines. Other research finds physical abuse more prevalent in the Philippines in the form of parental discipline Runyan et al. In an international study comparing six countries, Runyan et al.
The same study found that all types of physical discipline are used by Filipino families; 9. Sanapo and Nakamura found that physical punishment is a common practice in the Philippines with They suggest that high rates of physical punishment in the household are related to Philippine law that allows for parents to physically punish their children. In a study across nine countries, including the Philippines, the more parents believed corporal punishment to be normative technique to modify children's behaviours, the more likely it was used Lansford et al.
While the ramifications of physical abuse of children in the Philippines is not explored in depth in the literature, Lansford et al. The extent and characteristics of child sexual abuse in the Philippines has been identified in the literature. In Additionally, Maiquilla et al. Similarly, in a qualitative study that investigated the experiences of sexual abuse among girls with intellectual disabilities, it found that most of the perpetrators were familiar people and that detection of abuse came from caregivers Terol Risk factors for child sexual abuse for these girls included low economic status and impoverished conditions, living in crowded urban communities, as well as their mental retardation Terol Highlighting the social and health ramifications for participants who had been sexually abused as children, they were 12 times more likely to engage in early sex, nine times more likely to have an early pregnancy and five times more likely to attempt to commit suicide than those not sexually abused as children Ramiro et al.
There is limited analysis of child protection policies across the literature reviewed, and there is no comprehensive outline of child protection policies or systems in the Philippines. However, Madrid et al. Further, despite laws related to children's protection and rights, they remain largely unfunded Madrid et al.
Terol provides a brief critique of the way in which the health sector in the Philippines responds to child protection issues via multidisciplinary Child Protection Units CPUs. However, CPUs typically operate in isolation in addressing cases of child sexual abuse Terol For example, Ramiro et al. They also propose that communities could be supported via home visits of health workers and social workers, as well as community support groups and media messaging Ramiro et al.
Mandal and Hindin recommend that child maltreatment interventions should focus on the whole of family to reduce intergenerational transmission of family violence. Terol suggests that protective services for women and children need to be strengthened, while Ladion advocates for spirituality as an impetus for recovery for survivors of child sexual abuse. More specifically, in the criminal justice context, Sana et al. The findings of some studies included in this review offer some important considerations for future child protection responses.
They found that as the number of adverse childhood exposures increases, suicide attempts, use of illicit drugs and engaging in sexually risky behaviours become more prevalent Ramiro et al. This systematic review of the research literature was conducted to ascertain the dimensions and extent of child maltreatment and to investigate what is known about child protection responses in the Philippines. From a database search finding articles, 31 were identified as meeting the search criteria.
Research on the Consequences of Child Maltreatment and Its Application to Educational Settings
The literature provides evidence of all four domains of child maltreatment Ramiro et al. While the research varies on the extent and significance, physical violence is commonplace among families. Children experience harsh physical disciplining and corporal punishment, a common cultural and legally accepted practice in the family home Runyan et al.
For example, in Lansford et al. For example, across six countries, child discipline in the form of spanking is highest in the Philippines at a rate of 76 per cent among participants Runyan et al. Lee details that alcohol and drug use is a frequent element in family violence in the Philippines. This review has found limited evidence for experiences of neglect because it is a multifarious and socially constructed concept, and hard to measure in the context of developing countries, where experiences of poverty can influence family's capacities to meet the primary needs of children.
Despite this, Ramiro et al. The literature reviewed also provided limited evidence of child sexual abuse, a surprising result given that a report by ECPAT International finds that the commercial sexual exploitation of children is a substantial problem in the Philippines.