According to Creswell et al. Moon argued for the application of mixed methodology and provides a paradigm for its defense. He stated that the application of separate methods seeks to answer raised questions concerning the validity and accuracy. Bryman , cited in Moon stated that the application of the two are equally informing. Deetz , cited in Krauss , stated that different modes of research allows one to understand different phenomena and for different reasons.
Rather, there are multiple realities constructed by human beings who experience a phenomenon of interest. Positivism predominates in science and assumes that science quantitatively measures independent facts about a single apprehensible reality. In other words, the data and its analysis are value-free and data do not change because they are being observed. It is a position that holds that the goal of knowledge is simply to describe the phenomena that we experience. The purpose of science is simply to stick to what we can observe and measure. Knowledge of anything beyond that, a positivist would hold, as impossible Trochim, Husserl stated that interpretivists believe that reality is not objectively determined but is socially constructed.
Williams noted that it is often those who define themselves as interpretivists as opposed to more generic qualitative researchers who deny the possibility of generalization. He followed by stating that papers reporting on results of research using interpretive methods will make generalizing statements about findings whilst not commenting upon the basis upon which such generalizations might be justified.
He continued to say that interpretive research is similar to generalization since the later is taken in a broad scientific sense to mean a general proposition. The research is in place to employ a more interpretive approach of describing the state of financial inclusion and its effects using a set of factors from an administered survey.
The former being the invention of theory while the later is the application of theory.
This research aims at deducting theories and hypothesis in application to different scope. The research is also administered in a qualitative form. According to Meyer et al , the qualitative approach focuses on words and feelings, the quality of an event or experience. As a descriptive study and insight on a phenomenon, the research aims at shedding light on the various factors of consumer behavior in access and use of financial services.
The research will also make use of quantitative values in describing the phenomena of the study, thereby making it a mixed methodological approach.
Banking & Finance
This is to validate in information and findings that will be foundation of the research. The sample size covers a large number of people residing both in the UK and in Nigeria. The results of the survey will be analyzed using statistical graphs, charts and histograms which help in painting a vivid picture.
These statistical instruments will then be further explained with qualitative means. According to Jankowicz , it will be helpful to have a description of the sample responses followed by an indication of the existence of analytical statistical measures. Factors like income, employment, bank charges, quality services, level of complexity, required identification, financial education, and level of physical access.
This will be administered through questionnaire survey to describe and weigh the importance and effects of these factors to financial inclusion. The survey is also used to determine the type and extent of exclusion if any that exists among these areas. Using a survey from two distinct areas; Nigeria in comparison to the United Kingdom will be the two sample sets.
- how to write an intro paragraph for a thesis paper.
- backgrounds for powerpoint?
- research papers metaphysics.
- the curious incident of the dog essay.
- essay on fear of heights.
- rfid case study healthcare!
- write apa format research papers!
With the use of both primary and secondary data, the research aims to measure the level of financial inclusion in these regions. The ability of the questionnaire to use comparison is in its quality to identify easy comparators that match the two sets of population samples.
This technique of comparison might show a limited level of impact due to the differences in systems and level of advancements in the two sets of populations. Therefore some of the indicators and factors like household comparisons, and cultural differences might be inaccessible.
According to Kendall et al. The research does this through the analysis of set questionnaires to determine the levels of inclusion for each country. In measuring the level of accessibility the survey will try to cover factors as level of bank outreach by distance of bank branches and accessibility to ATMs. According to the World Bank financial access , measuring the level of access in a country will enable policy makers to be able to reach effective policies and track the progress of the their financial institutions.
It states that the first step is to start regularly collecting a set of standardized indicators for all regulated financial institutions in a country. These indicators include the number of deposit accounts and loans, the number of deposit clients and borrowers e. Among these the research also employs the use of other indicators that measure various levels of financial deepening in a country. This will be determined with the use of the survey questionnaires.
The purpose of this is to validate the place of quality service in including individuals in the banking system. The service sector is The UK companies operating in the financial services market are noted for deploying generic marketing strategies, particularly the Big 4 retail banks. There has been a large amount of enquiry into the level of financial exclusion in the UK. According to the Financial Times , UK banking has experienced some improvements owing to the reduction in loan impairment charges and to retail and commercial business.
A country of dynamism should be symbolic for comparison to a lesser state of economic level and also for the purpose of research. The Nigerian service sector is In order to achieve gains in the all sectors, the Nigerian banking system has undertaken various reforms. One of which is the Rural Access and Mobility project which aims to enhance rural mobility and access to markets and services. In general the banking system in the country is seen to be very poor and needs to be upgraded.
Seeing its differences from that of the UK will be a point of contrast as to how in- depth and how far along the country has come financially. A variety of response formats are used in the questionnaire. Formats like multiple choice formats, ranked format, free choice format, and rating format. The questions will be administered with the use of postal, email and internet mediums. This will allow a regulation of the various sampling issues that are related with the various methods. According to Saunders et al.
This will be judged by the following criteria. The research would have liked to make it possible to include a postal medium in the case of Nigeria, but due to the high amount of cost and time involved, the Nigerian survey was limited to the email and internet medium. Still yet, the desired respondents will give a good account of what is expected of the research. The research gave a careful statement of who the researcher is and what the purpose of the questionnaire was for.
Before the administration of the questions, it was made clear that the study does not conflict with the general values. The questions given will ensure the anonymity of the respondents thereby not providing any information that will be detrimental or embarrassing to them. Some of which had to be followed up to ensure due completion. Apparently, not all respondents were corporative but given the measurement of the required sample size, the research cannot be said to be a total floor.
The sample size may not reflect the nature of the research answer. Even so, secondary data will be used in support of the research objective. It starts by giving an introduction to the implemented research paradigms.
dissertation topics in banking and finance pdf - page 1
It states this to be an interpretive research paradigm. It distinguishes the research as a mixed methodological approach through its adoption of both qualitative and quantitative methods of interpretation. It summarizes the data collection process as through the use of primary and secondary data; attempting to validate the findings.
Data will be analyzed on a comparative base between two large sample sizes; Nigeria and the UK. All the factors are backed by a set of hypothesis which will help to answer the research question. According to Jankowicz , the value of structured approach is that it allows one to standardize questions making a more numerate statistical based analysis possible. The research questionnaire aims at covering various factors using a set of structured questions. Some of the questions are unnecessary to the research question but are useful to initiate the respondents into the survey.
The survey is drafted in two set of samples i. Each research relevant question will be outlined statistically and described qualitatively. In showing the amount of people who had access to bank accounts, the survey gave the following results. Nigerians compared to the UK bank users all see the need for a bank account as this is the first step towards an inclusive financial capability.