Don't repeat the city of location if it is part of the University's name. Callaghan, S. Mosek, E. Smith, G. UMI No. Tsao, S. If an author's first name is hyphenated, as in Shu-Feng Tsao above, retain the hyphen and include a full stop after each initial. RTO Code: Skip to main content. VU Home Library Guides. Search this Guide Search. On this page Basic format to reference an unpublished thesis Referencing theses: Examples. Related links Citing photos, tables, graphs and other illustrations. In-text referencing The basics of an in-text reference in APA.
This form must be accompanied by a separate statement indicating the reasons for the fail outcome. The candidate may request permission for a second final oral examination from the Vice Dean for Academic Affairs. If the candidate fails the second final oral examination, matriculation is automatically and irrevocably terminated. Any combination of votes which does not result in a pass or fail as specified above must result in a deferred pass with conditions.
This statement should include both revisions of the dissertation requested by the final oral commission and also any other requirements which the commission feels the candidate must complete to secure a pass outcome. The candidate must complete all designated revisions and requirements within one semester following that in which the final oral examination is held exclusive of Summer semesters.
In order for the candidate's outcome to be recorded as pass, at least four out of the five or three out of four if the final oral commission consisted of four members, or five out of six if the final oral commission consisted of six members members of the final oral commission must indicate a pass vote on the above-mentioned form. If any member of the five-member final oral commission is absent, the dissertation committee chairperson must secure permission from the Vice Dean for Academic Affairs to proceed with the final oral examination.
Assuming permission to proceed is granted, the information below applies to the voting procedures. After the final oral examination, you are required to submit an additional copy of the dissertation to be reviewed by the Office of Doctoral Studies for format. This copy should be submitted after you have made changes required by the final oral commission.
If the required changes are minor, you may submit the dissertation for format review immediately after the final oral examination so that the format changes and the commission's changes can be completed simultaneously. Final approval of the dissertation will take place only after the edited dissertation has been reviewed by the Office of Doctoral Studies. All candidates for the degrees of PhD and EdD are required to publish the dissertation through ProQuest UMI Dissertation Publishing and must upload a final dissertation electronically for this purpose.
A final copy of the dissertation will also be submitted to NYU Libraries for our institutional repository. This section describes the dissertation format that all Steinhardt doctoral candidates are required to follow. Please read this section carefully and contact the Office of Doctoral Studies if you have any questions. Faculty policy leaves the choice of a style manual to the doctoral candidate with the advice and consent of his or her committee. Generally, candidates are urged to learn and use the manual most often required for scholarly writing by journals within their disciplines.
Typically, the following style manuals are used by NYU Steinhardt students:. Your printer must produce consistently black letters and consistent margins. Sufficient darkness is also necessary for any supporting materials, such as tables, figures, drawings, pictures, etc. Your dissertation will be published by ProQuest UMI which requires clear, high-contrast characters and images.
The School and ProQuest UMI allow students to use typefaces that are between 10 and 12 points; however, because 10 point can appear too small in most typefaces, 12 point is generally preferred.
A smaller or condensed typeface can be used for tables that otherwise might not fit across a page within the correct margins, however, mixing typefaces is otherwise not recommended. Underlining or italics may be used for statistical symbols, book titles, or definitions but use either one or the other consistently throughout your manuscript, including tables.
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Headings should be underlined when appropriate and not italicized. Bold type should not be used in the manuscript. Avoid leaving more than two inches of white space without type. This applies to tables and figures as well as to text. A table or figure should be inserted in the text as soon after it is first referred to where it will fit in its entirety on one page. Leave three blank lines between a table and text or text and a table; the same for figures.
Continue your text if you can fit at least four lines after it. You may have more than one table on a page and you may have a table, discussion, and a table. The same procedure applies to all illustrative material. APA style requires writers to double space all typed material, including the exceptions noted above. You have the option, however, of double spacing your references and block quotations; MLA style users also have this option. The title page is counted as page one and the copyright page as page two, but numbers do not appear on them.
Lower case roman numerals iii, iv, v, vi, etc. Beginning with page 1 of Chapter I, Arabic numbers are used and are continuous through the last page including all appendices.
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Page numbers for all pages in the chapter, including the first page of each chapter or major section, should be placed three quarters of an inch from the top or bottom edge of the paper centered between the margins. Your dissertation will be automatically copyrighted by UMI when it is published. You should include a copyright page with your name and copyright date in the middle of the page, centered left to right between the margins and top to bottom.
Please note that the copyright date is the year of your degree conferral. Follow this format:. The copyright page is page ii of the pages preceding the text the title page is understood to be page i , but no number should appear on either the title page or the copyright page. Because a dissertation does not have an index, your Table of Contents should be as comprehensive as possible. Include all headings and subheadings, exactly as they appear in the text, up to and including Level 2.
How to format a thesis to APA guidelines
Including lower level headings is optional. See sample Table of Contents in the next section. Note that the indentation of a heading used in the Table of Contents corresponds to the level of the heading. The following illustrates this:. You should supply the reader with lists of tables, figures, and any other illustrative material used in your dissertation.
See the sample lists in the next section. Lists of musical examples or reproductions of art, or information about films, follow the same form as that used for lists of tables and figures. Chapter headings and titles appear centered between the margins as follows, beginning two inches from the top of the page:. Headings within the chapter should indicate the weight you assign to particular ideas by the form of headings suggested in the style manual you have selected or the form suggested below.
Leave three blank lines i. If one heading immediately follows another, leave only one blank line a double space between the two. Leave one blank line a double space after each heading. Capitalize the first letter of each word of headings except for articles, conjunctions, and prepositions. The following is one way in which to order headings and to type them. Be sure that no heading appears at the bottom of a page without at least two lines of text beneath it.
The Table of Contents will contain all Level 1 and Level 2 headings exactly as they appear in the text. It is not necessary to include Level 3 or lower-level headings in the Table of Contents, but you may if it provides the reader with more useful information. Chapter numbers are upper case roman numerals with no period , e. All other items requiring numbers should have Arabic numbers. Appendices, should be designated by capital letters, e. Use numbers or letters for other items only when necessary. Use 1 in the text and 1. If items in a numbered list run onto two or more lines, you may let the additional lines begin at the margin or indent the entire paragraph to the right of the numbers.
Numbers beginning a sentence, as well as numbers below 10 or, if you prefer, 12 should be spelled out when they appear within the text. If a table, appendix, illustration, or graph is too wide or long, or both, to fit within the specified margins, have it reduced, or if textual material, type it using a smaller font.
Whenever possible, avoid inserting tables which must be read by turning the book sideways. If such a table is necessary, be sure to insert it with the heading to the spine or binding.
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You may also use a condensed typeface. For style guides other than APA, if you have more than one work by the same author, do not repeat his or her name over and over. Use 10 underscore characters, ending with a period if the author is exactly the same as the previous one, or with a comma if the author is the first of a series of new authors, as shown below. Single space the entry; double space between entries.
Indent the second and subsequent lines one-half inch. Note that authors with two initials have a space after the period between each initial, e. Do not allow initials to break between lines; keep them together on one line or the other. Regardless of the style guide you use, avoid having one or two lines of an entry on one page and the rest of the citation on the next page.
The entry should be cited in its entirety on one page or the other. The way you cite an author in your manuscript is based on the context.
If you are attributing an idea that you paraphrased to someone, use the name and date according to APA style such as Jones, , or as shown in the first sentence below.